Polish Occupations


Source of English Translations

source entry meaning of source entry
dict entry translation derived exactly from the Langenscheidt Polish dictionary
dict extrapolation the exact entry did not appear in the dictionary, but there was an existing entry that could be logically modified into an occupation by following the same pattern used in other occupation translations
dict combination the phrase did not appear in the dictionary; the Polish words were looked up individually and combined
Dict surnames A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Kingdom of Poland, by Alexander Beider
Jewishgen occupation not found in the dictionary; copy of the Jewishgen translation
LDS dict occupation not found in the dictionary; copy of translation from pamphlet distributed by the Latter Day Saints (Mormons)
? translation provided by the indicated source but does not match the Langenscheidt dictionary entry
blank a Krakow record indicated this occupation, but no translation could be found in any of the sources

Table of occupations appearing in 19th century Krakow vital records

Polish                  English                         source

adwokat                 lawyer                          dict entry
ajent handlowy          commercial agent                dict combination
akuszerka               midwife                         dict entry
aptekarz                chemist/druggist                dict entry
arendarz                lease-holder, innkeeper         Jewishgen
artysta                 artist                          dict entry
bakalarz                teacher                         LDS dict
bankier                 banker                          dict entry
belfer                  assistant melamed in cheder     Jewishgen
bez zatrudnienie        without occupation              dict combination
blacharz                tinsmith                        dict entry
boznica                 synagogue                       dict entry
browarnik               brewer                          dict extrapolation
brukarz                 paver                           dict extrapolation
buchhalter              bookkeeper                      German Dictionary
budowniczy              builder                         dict entry
bufetowy                barman                          dict entry
burmistrz               mayor                           dict entry
byly                    former/past/old/ex-/late        dict entry
ceglarz                 brickmaker                      dict extrapolation
chazan                  cantor                          Jewishgen
ciesla                  carpenter                       dict entry
cukiernik               confectioner                    dict entry
cyrulnik                barber-surgeon                  LDS dict
czapnik                 capmaker (also hatmaker)        dict entry
czarownik               sorcerer/wizard                 dict entry
czeladnik               journeyman                      dict entry
czlowiek studiujacy     student                         Jewishgen
doktor                  doctor                          dict entry
domokrazca              peddler/hawker (huckster)       dict entry
domu czynszowy          landlord                        dict extrapolation
dozorca                 guard/overseer                  dict entry
dozorca boznica         synagogue caretaker             dict extrapolation
drobny kupiec           small merchant                  dict entry
drobny handlarz         shopkeeper                      dict entry
drukarz                 printer                         dict entry
duchowny                clergyman                       dict entry
dziedzic                landlord                        Jewishgen
dzierzawca              tenant                          dict entry
ekonomia                bailiff, land-steward (?)       Jewishgen
ekspedytor              forwarding agent                dict entry
fabrykant               manufacturer                    dict entry
faktor                  agent/broker                    dict entry
farbiarz                dyer                            dict extrapolation
felczer                 assistant surgeon               dict entry
fryzjer                 barber                          dict entry
furman                  carter                          dict entry
galanternik             seller of fancy goods, garments dict extrapolation
garbarz                 tanner                          dict entry
garncarz                potter                          dict entry
golarz                  barber                          Polish translator
gornik                  miner                           dict entry
gorzelnik               alcohol distiller               dict extrapolation
gospodarz               farmer/landlord                 dict entry
grabarz                 grave-digger                    dict entry
handlarz                dealer/trader                   dict entry
handlarz bydlo          " in cattle                     dict entry
handlarz chmiel         " in hops                       dict entry
handlarz drzewo         " in wood/timber                dict entry
handlarz gesi           " in goose                      dict entry
handlarz koral          " in coral                      dict entry
handlarz korzenie       " in spices                     dict entry
handlarz kosz           " in baskets                    dict entry
handlarz mak            " in poppies                    dict entry
handlarz mebel          " in furniture                  dict entry
handlarz nabial         " in dairy products             dict entry
handlarz nafta          " in oil                        dict entry
handlarz obuwie         " in footwear/shoes             dict entry
handlarz papier         " in paper                      dict entry
handlarz plotno         " in linen                      dict entry
handlarz produkt        " in produce                    dict entry
handlarz skora          " in skins                      dict entry
handlarz starzynnza     " in junk                       dict entry
handlarz stroje damskie " in ladies dresses             dict entry
handlarz szklo          " in glass                      dict entry
" towary galantaryjnych " in fancy goods                dict extrapolation
handlarz wiktual        " in victuals (provisions,food) dict entry
handlarz wino           " in wine                       dict entry
handlarz zapalek        " in matches                    dict entry
handlarz zboze          " in grain                      dict entry
handlarz zelazo         " in iron                       dict entry
introligator            bookbinder                      dict entry
jalmuznik               alms giver                      Jewishgen
jubiler                 jeweller                        dict entry
kahalny                 senior kahal member             Jewishgen
kamieniarz              stone cutter                    dict entry
kandydat adwokack       lawyer before taking the bar    Polish translator
kantor                  cantor                          Polish translator
kapelusznik             hatter                          dict entry
kapicier                roofer                          Dict surnames
karabelnik              hawker, peddler                 Jewishgen
karczmarz               innkeeper                       dict entry
kelner                  waiter                          dict entry
komornik                renter                          dict extrapolation
kominiarz               chimney-sweep                   dict entry
komisyoner              commissioner                    dict extrapolation
kotlarz                 coppersmith, brazier            Jewishgen
kowal                   smith                           dict entry
kramarz                 stall keeper                    LDS dict
krawcowa                dressmaker                      dict entry
krawiec                 tailor                          dict entry
krawiec damski          dressmaker                      dict entry
krawiec meski           men's tailor                    dict entry
kreslarz                draftsman                       dict entry
krochmalnik             starch maker or merchant        dict extrapolation
kucharz                 cook                            dict entry
kufernik                coppersmith                     Dict surnames
kupiec                  merchant/tradesman/dealer       dict entry
kusnierz                furrier                         dict entry
laznik                  bath attendant                  Jewishgen
lekarz                  physician                       dict entry
lesnik                  forester                        dict extrapolation
listonosz               postman                         dict entry
maczarz/macznik         miller                          LDS dict
majster                 master/foreman/boss             dict entry
malarz                  painter                         dict entry
malarz pokojowy         house painter                   dict extrapolation
meklarz                 broker                          Dict surnames
mleczarz                dairyman                        LDS dict
mlynarz                 miller                          dict extrapolation
mosiaznik               brass worker, brazier           Jewishgen
murarz                  bricklayer/mason                dict entry
muzyk                   musician                        dict entry
mydlarz                 soap-boiler                     dict entry
nadkonduktor            overseer                        dict extrapolation
najemnik                hireling                        dict entry
nauczyciel              teacher                         dict entry
negocyant               negotiator                      dict extrapolation
oberzysta               tavern keeper                   Jewishgen
ogrodnik                farmer, gardener                dict extrapolation
pachciarz               tenant                          LDS dict
palacz                  stoker/fireman or distiller     Jewishgen
parasolnik              parasol (umbrella) maker        Polish translator
parobek                 farmhand                        dict entry
piekarz                 baker                           dict entry
pisarz                  writer                          dict entry
piwowar                 brewer                          dict entry
poborca podatkowy       tax collector                   dict entry
podkahalny              lesser kahal member             Jewishgen
podrabin                assistant rabbi                 Jewishgen
poeta                   poet                            dict entry
pogrzebacz              poker, grave digger             Jewishgen
policjant               policeman                       dict entry
pomocnik handlowy       assistant shopkeeper            dict entry
poslugaczka             servant, porter                 dict entry
prawnik                 lawyer                          dict entry
producent               manufacturer                    Jewishgen
propinator              tap room keeper
prywatyst/prywatny      private person                  Polish translator
przedsiebiorca          contractor/builder              dict entry
przekupian              hawker (huckster)               Jewishgen
przemysl                industry                        dict entry
przewoznik              ferryman, carrier, boatman      dict entry
przy tesciu bawiacy     staying with in-laws            dict extrapolation
przybor                 outfit, equipment, fittings     dict entry
przy rodzinie           living with parents             dict extrapolation
rabin                   rabbi                           dict entry
radzic                  advisor                         dict entry
radzorca                overseer                        Jewishgen
realnosc                real estate                     dict entry
rentier                 pensioner(?)                    dict extrapolation
rewizor                 controller                      Jewishgen
robotnik                worker                          dict entry
robotnik rolny          farmhand                        dict entry
rolnik                  farmer                          dict entry
rybak                   fisherman                       dict entry
rysownik                draftsman/sketcher/designer     dict entry
rzemieslnik             artisan/craftsman               dict entry
rzezak                  mohel                           LDS dict
rzezbiarz               sculptor                        dict entry
rzeznik                 butcher                         dict entry
sklepikarz              shop keeper                     dict entry
skornik                 tanner                          Jewishgen
slodownik               maltster                        Jewishgen
slusarz                 locksmith                       dict entry
sluzacy                 servant                         dict entry
smolarz                 pitch-burner                    Jewishgen
spekulant               speculator                      dict entry
stelmach                cart/wheel maker                LDS dict
stolarz                 carpenter                       dict entry
straznik, stroz         guard/watchman                  dict entry
stypendysta             scholarship holder              dict entry
sukiennik               draper                          dict entry
szafarz                 treasurer/tax/customs clerk     Polish translator
szewc                   shoemaker                       dict entry
szklarz                 glazier                         dict entry
szkolnik                rabbi's assistant/teacher       LDS dict
szmuklarz               lace maker                      Jewishgen
szpektor                teacher's assistant             Jewishgen
szpekulant              money-lender                    Jewishgen
szpitalnik              hospital worker                 dict extrapolation
szwaczka                seamstress                      dict entry
szynkarz                tavern keeper                   Polish translator
szyper                  skipper                         Dict surnames
talmudyst               talmudist
tandeciarz              old=clothes man                 Dict surnames
tapicer                 upholsterer                     dict entry
targownik               peddler                         LDS dict
terminator              apprentice                      dict entry
tkacz                   weaver                          dict entry
tokarz                  turner (lathe)                  dict entry
towar                   goods                           dict entry
traktyernie             innkeeper                       Dict surnames
ubogi                   poor                            dict entry
uczen                   school boy/pupil                dict entry
uczony                  scholar                         dict entry
urzednik                clerk                           dict entry
waciarz                 quilt maker                     Jewishgen
wapniarz                lime burner                     Jewishgen
wexlarz                 banker/money changer
wiernik                 trustee                         Jewishgen
winnik                  wine maker                      Jewishgen
wlasciciel              proprietor, owner               dict entry
wlasciciel realnosc     property owner                  dict extrapolation
wloscianin              farmer/peasant                  dict extrapolation
wyrob ponczuch          maker of stockings              dict entry
wyrobnik                laborer                         dict entry
wyszynkarz              innkeeper                       Jewishgen
wytworca                manufacturer                    dict extrapolation
zarobnik                worker                          dict entry
zebrak                  beggar                          dict entry
zegarmistrz             watchmaker                      dict entry
zlotnik                 goldsmith                       dict entry
znachor                 medicine man                    Jewishgen
zniwiarz                reaper                          dict entry
zolnierz                soldier                         dict entry

This list was provided by Bruce Morgenstern.

Dan Hirschberg
Computer Science
University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3425
dan at ics.uci.edu
Last modified: Oct 8, 2000