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Post s Correspondence Problem
Some Real ProblemsProperties of LanguageswAny set of languages is a property of languages.
Example: The infiniteness property is the set of infinite languages.<xf33>/:Properties of Langauges (2)
As always, languages must be defined by some descriptive device.
The most general device we know is the TM.
Thus, we shall think of a property as a problem about Turing machines.
Let LP be the set of binary TM codes for TM s M such that L(M) has property P. 833J Trivial PropertiesThere are two (trivial ) properties P for which LP is decidable.
The always-false property, which contains no RE languages.
The always-true property, which contains every RE language.
Rice s Theorem: For every other property P, LP is undecidable.Awu?ff&f$3f@Plan for Proof of Rice s TheoremLemma needed: recursive languages are closed under complementation.
We need the technique known as reduction, where an algorithm converts instances of one problem to instances of another.
Then, we can prove the theorem.:u3fW fp
4Closure of Recursive Languages Under ComplementationIf L is a language with alphabet *, then the complement of L is * - L.
Denote the complement of L by Lc.
Lemma: If L is recursive, so is Lc.
Proof: Let L = L(M) for a TM M.
Construct M for Lc.
M has one final state, the new state f.J"!f3f3f-+>h"3+"Proof Concluded3f
^M simulates M.
But if M enters an accepting state, M halts without accepting.
If M halts without accepting, M instead has a move taking it to state f.
In state f, M halts.
ReductionsA reduction from language L to language L is an algorithm (TM that always halts) that takes a string w and converts it to a string x, with the property that:
x is in L if and only if w is in L.@' f%3v6&TM s as Transducers fWe have regarded TM s as acceptors of strings.
But we could just as well visualize TM s as having an output tape, where a string is written prior to the TM halting.
Such a TM translates its input to its output.(efc Reductions (2)If we reduce L to L , and L is decidable, then the algorithm for L + the algorithm of the reduction shows that L is also decidable.
Used in the contrapositive: If we know L is not decidable, then L cannot be decidable.&3>>z8$Reductions Aside
3zThis form of reduction is not the most general.
Example: We reduced Ld to Lu, but in doing so we had to complement answers.
More in NP-completeness discussion on Karp vs. Cook reductions.^033V3.Proof of Rice s Theorem3fWe shall show that for every nontrivial property P of the RE languages, LP is undecidable.
We show how to reduce Lu to LP.
Since we know Lu is undecidable, it follows that LP is also undecidable.lI(">N6
The ReductionOur reduction algorithm must take M and w and produce a TM M .
L(M ) has property P if and only if M accepts w.
M has two tapes, used for:
Simulates another TM ML on the input to M .
Simulates M on w.
Note: neither M, ML, nor w is input to M .>u+u'3f
&The Reduction (2)Assume that does not have property P.
If it does, consider the complement of P, which would also be decidable by the lemma.
Let L be any language with property P, and let ML be a TM that accepts L.
M is constructed to work as follows (next slide).Z(V}V0LDesign of M On the second tape, write w and then simulate M on w.
If M accepts w, then simulate ML on the input x to M , which appears initially on the first tape.
M accepts its input x if and only if ML accepts x.<uUi+6Action of M if M Accepts w
$Design of M (2),Suppose M accepts w.
Then M simulates ML and therefore accepts x if and only if x is in L.
That is, L(M ) = L, L(M ) has property P, and M is in LP.6(k$Design of M (3)jSuppose M does not accept w.
Then M never starts the simulation of ML, and never accepts its input x.
Thus, L(M ) = , and L(M ) does not have property P.
That is, M is not in LP.HE/=*FAction of M if M Does not Accept wx72Design of M ConclusionThus, the algorithm that converts M and w to M is a reduction of Lu to LP.
Thus, LP is undecidable.HeC X)Picture of the Reduction#<Applications of Rice s TheoremWe now have any number of undecidable questions about TM s:
Is L(M) a regular language?
Is L(M) a CFL?
Does L(M) include any palindromes?
Is L(M) empty?
Does L(M) contain more than 1000 strings?
Etc., etc.
&<<$:Post s Correspondence ProblemBut we re still stuck with problems about Turing machines only.
Post s Correspondence Problem (PCP) is an example of a problem that does not mention TM s in its statement, yet is undecidable.
From PCP, we can prove many other non-TM problems undecidable.(@f,4&
PCP InstancesAn instance of PCP is a list of pairs of nonempty strings over some alphabet .
Say (w1, x1), (w2, x2), & , (wn, xn).
The answer to this instance of PCP is yes if and only if there exists a nonempty sequence of indices i1,& ,ik, such that wi1& win = xi1& xin. P%Mh
Plo0Example: PCP
33Let the alphabet be {0, 1}.
Let the PCP instance consist of the two pairs (0, 01) and (100, 001).
We claim there is no solution.
You can t start with (100, 001), because the first characters don t match.1$Example: PCP (2)33
3$Example: PCP (3)33Suppose we add a third pair, so the instance becomes: 1 = (0, 01); 2 = (100, 001); 3 = (110, 10).
Now 1,3 is a solution; both strings are 0110.
In fact, any sequence of indexes in 12*3 is a solution.66Proving PCP is UndecidablelWe ll introduce the modified PCP (MPCP) problem.
Same as PCP, but the solution must start with the first pair in the list.
We reduce Lu to MPCP.
But first, we ll reduce MPCP to PCP.^2J;fJ/7
Example: MPCP33The list of pairs (0, 01), (100, 001), (110, 10), as an instance of MPCP, has a solution as we saw.
However, if we reorder the pairs, say (110, 10), (0, 01), (100, 001) there is no solution.
No string 110& can ever equal a string 10& .&--9"Representing PCP or MPCP InstancespSince the alphabet can be arbitrarily large, we need to code symbols.
Say the i-th symbol will be coded by a followed by i in binary.
Commas and parentheses can represent themselves.Pf<8Representing Instances (2)Thus, we have a finite alphabet in which all instances of PCP or MPCP can be represented.
Let LPCP and LMPCP be the languages of coded instances of PCP or MPCP, respectively, that have a solution.6_Y=Reducing LMPCP to LPCP 6
tTake an instance of LMPCP and do the following, using new symbols * and $.
For the first string of each pair, add * after every character.
For the second string of each pair, add * before every character.
Add pair ($, *$).
Make another copy of the first pair, with * s and an extra * prepended to the first string.nKw2)33<33
?Example: LMPCP to LPCP B33~:&LMPCP to LPCP (2)6If the MPCP instance has a solution string w, then padding with stars fore and aft, followed by a $ is a solution string for the PCP instance.
Use same sequence of indexes, but special pair to start.
Add ender pair as the last index.&[[;&LMPCP to LPCP (3)6Conversely, the indexes of a PCP solution give us a MPCP solution.
First index must be special pair replace by first pair.
Remove ender.,CHuCHBReducing Lu to LMPCP.
\We use MPCP to simulate the sequence of ID s that M executes with input w.
If q0w"I1"I2" & is the sequence of ID s of M with input w, then any solution to the MPCP instance we can construct will begin with this sequence of ID s.
# separates ID s and also serves to represent blanks at the end of an ID.JOJG!4Reducing Lu to LMPCP (2)6
But until M reaches an accepting state, the string formed by concatenating the second components of the chosen pairs will always be a full ID ahead of the string from the first pair.
If M accepts, we can even out the difference and solve the MPCP instance.C4Reducing Lu to LMPCP (3)6
Key assumption: M has a semi-infinite tape; it never moves left from its initial head position.
Alphabet of MPCP instance: state and tape symbols of M (assumed disjoint) plus special symbol # (assumed not a state or tape symbol).̙H 4Reducing Lu to LMPCP (4)6
First MPCP pair: (#, #q0w#).
We start out with the second string having the initial ID and a full ID ahead of the first.
(#, #).
We can add ID-enders to both strings.
(X, X) for all tape symbols X of M.
We can copy a tape symbol from one ID to the next.\&$3\&$3I"Example: Copying Symbols33Suppose we have chosen MPCP pairs to simulate some number of steps of M, and the partial strings from these pairs look like:
. . . #
. . . #ABqCD#}L#4Reducing Lu to LMPCP (5)6
For every state q of M and tape symbol X, there are pairs:
(qX, Yp) if (q, X) = (p, Y, R).
(ZqX, pZY) if (q, X) = (p, Y, L) [any Z].
Also, if X is the blank, # can substitute.
(q#, Yp#) if (q, B) = (p, Y, R).
(Zq#, pZY#) if (q, X) = (p, Y, L) [any Z].;Lu+Nu;"+
#<R#N$<Example: Copying Symbols (2)33>Continuing the previous example, if (q, C) = (p, E, R), then:
. . . #AB
. . . #ABqCD#AB
If M moves left, we should not have copied B if we wanted a solution.:?F${QJQ%4Reducing Lu to LMPCP (6)6
RIf M reaches an accepting state f, then f eats the neighboring tape symbols, one or two at a time, to enable M to reach an ID that is essentially empty.
The MPCP instance has pairs (XfY, f), (fY, f), and (Xf, f) for all tape symbols X and Y.
To even up the strings and solve: (f##, #).bE>%Example: Cleaning Up After Acceptance&33R&CFG s from PCP We are going to prove that the ambiguity problem (is a given CFG ambiguous?) is undecidable.
As with PCP instances, CFG instances must be coded to have a finite alphabet.
Let a followed by a binary integer i represent the i-th terminal.:f>,Q
S'(CFG s from PCP (2)Let A followed by a binary integer i represent the i-th variable.
Let A1 be the start symbol.
Symbols ->, comma, and represent themselves.
Example: S -> 0S1 | A, A -> c is represented by A1->a1A1a10,A1->A10,A10->a118u33f,5T((CFG s from PCP (3)Consider a PCP instance with k pairs.
i-th pair is (wi, xi).
Assume index symbols a1,& , ak are not in the alphabet of the PCP instance.
The list language for w1,& , wk has a CFG with productions A -> wiAai and A -> wiai for all i = 1, 2,& , k.5
f2
f#
t( nY)List LanguagesTSimilarly, from the second components of each pair, we can construct a list language with productions B -> xiBai and B -> xiai for all i = 1, 2,& , k.
These languages each consist of the concatenation of strings from the first or second components of pairs, followed by the reverse of their indexes.Z+l,k
Z*Example: List Languages33Consider PCP instance (a,ab), (baa,aab), (bba,ba).
Use 1, 2, 3 as the index symbols for these pairs in order.
A -> aA1 | baaA2 | bbaA3 | a1 | baa2 | bba3
B -> abB1 | aabB2 | baB3 | ab1 | aab2 | ba3*nXnX3P\+)Reduction of PCP to the Ambiguity ProblemGiven a PCP instance, construct grammars for the two list languages, with variables A and B.
Add productions S -> A | B.
The resulting grammar is ambiguous if and only if there is a solution to the PCP instance.],Example: Reduction to Ambiguity 33A -> aA1 | baaA2 | bbaA3 | a1 | baa2 | bba3
B -> abB1 | aabB2 | baB3 | ab1 | aab2 | ba3
S -> A | B
There is a solution 1, 3.
Note abba31 has leftmost derivations:
S => A => aA1 => abba31
S => B => abB1 => abba316c@1c3q^-Proof the Reduction Works3fLIn one direction, if a1,& , ak is a solution, then w1& wkak& a1 equals x1& xkak& a1 and has two derivations, one starting S -> A, the other starting S -> B.
Conversely, there can only be two derivations of the same terminal string if they begin with different first productions. Why? Next slide.' P*_."Proof Continued3f
If the two derivations begin with the same first step, say S -> A, then the sequence of index symbols uniquely determines which productions are used.
Each except the last would be the one with A in the middle and that index symbol at the end.
The last is the same, but no A in the middle.&<,Example: S =>A=>*& 232133e/@More Real Undecidable Problems |To show things like CFL-equivalence to be undecidable, it helps to know that the complement of a list language is also a CFL.
We ll construct a deterministic PDA for the complement langauge.,*f0*DPDA for the Complement of a List LanguageStart with a bottom-of-stack marker.
While PCP symbols arrive at the input, push them onto the stack.
After the first index symbol arrives, start checking the stack for the reverse of the corresponding string.l1*Complement DPDA (2)The DPDA accepts after every input, with one exception.
If the input has consisted so far of only PCP symbols and then index symbols, and the bottom-of-stack marker is exposed after reading an index symbol, do not accept.:3333 m2Using the Complements`For a given PCP instance, let LA and LB be the list languages for the first and second components of pairs.
Let LAc and LBc be their complements.
All these languages are CFL s.nJ6,x/o3Using the ComplementsConsider LAc LBc.
Also a CFL.
= * if and only if the PCP instance has no solution.
Why? a solution a1,& , an implies w1& wnan& a1 is not in LAc, and the equal x1& xnan& a1 is not in LBc.
Conversely, anything missing is a solution.Z
D
.Ph$.p40Undecidability of = * $
bWe have reduced PCP to the problem is a given CFL equal to all strings over its terminal alphabet?c#@3=FUndecidablility of CFL is Regular Also undecidable: is a CFL a regular language?
Same reduction from PCP.
Proof: One direction: If LAc LBc = *, then it surely is regular.33f,V"q5" = Regular (2)Conversely, we can show that if L = LAc LBc is not *, then it can t be regular.
Proof: Suppose wx is a solution to PCP, where x is the indices.
Define homomorphism h(0) = w and h(1) = x..3ffP 5Y|9" = Regular (3)h(0n1n) is not in L, because the repetition of any solution is also a solution.
However, h(y) is in L for any other y in {0,1}*.
If L were regular, so would be h 1(L), and so would be its complement = {0n1n |n > 1}.l(
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Example: PCPExample: PCP – (2)Example: PCP – (3)Proving PCP is UndecidableExample: MPCP#Representing PCP or MPCP InstancesRepresenting Instances – (2)Reducing LMPCP to LPCP Example: LMPCP to LPCP LMPCP to LPCP – (2)LMPCP to LPCP – (3)Reducing Lu to LMPCPReducing Lu to LMPCP – (2)Reducing Lu to LMPCP – (3)Reducing Lu to LMPCP – (4)Example: Copying SymbolsReducing Lu to LMPCP – (5)!Example: Copying Symbols – (2)Reducing Lu to LMPCP – (6)&Example: Cleaning Up After AcceptanceCFG’s from PCPCFG’s from PCP – (2)CFG’s from PCP – (3)List LanguagesExample: List Languages*Reduction of PCP to the Ambiguity Problem Example: Reduction to AmbiguityProof the Reduction WorksProof – ContinuedExample: S =>A=>*…2321%More “Real” Undecidable Problems+DPDA for the Complement of a List LanguageComplement DPDA – (2)Using the ComplementsUsing the ComplementsUndecidability of “= Σ*”(Undecidablility of “CFL is Regular”“= Regular” – (2)“= Regular” – (3)Fonts UsedDesign Template
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