All the articles for the quarter are now listed here.

Overview of the readings: The course textbook, Sara Baase's A Gift of Fire, gives a complete, balanced overview of many of the issues we're covering. We recommend reading the designated sections before reading the articles listed below, although you are not required to include in your course notebook any summaries or reactions to your readings in the Baase book.

Aside from the Baase textbook, all the required readings are listed below. (We may add to the list as the quarter progresses; look for the "New" icons.) We expect you to read each listed article by the date specified and to include for each article an entry in your course notebook. See the Course Notebook page for the detailed requirements.

As you read these articles, consider not only the content but also the source. Who's the author? Can you determine his or her qualifications, background, or job? What's the date of the article? What kind of publication does it come from:

This collection includes a mix of these sources; occasionally you'll even see the same topics covered from different sources' perspectives; as you write your notebook, you can indicate these differences in treatment.

Access to the readings: Most of these readings are available on the web via the links given below. The others are available in the bookstore or in the ICS 131 Reading Packet available from the Engineering Copy Center, as noted.

Most of the web-based readings are available through the UCI Library's article databases, which means they're not freely available to the public. You can get access to those links with no trouble from computers on campus, but for access from home or anywhere else, you'll need to set up a Virtual Private Network (VPN) using free software available from UCI's NACS (for Windows, Linux, or MacOS X). NACS has a page describing how to download and install the VPN software: . We have found this process to work smoothly, but you should set it up and test it immediately so that you don't run into problems too close to the deadline. We won't accept last-minute technical problems as an excuse for late notebooks. Note, too, that web sites are sometimes unavailable, so it would be wise not to wait until the very last minute to read or download the articles.

Exam questions about the readings: The questions on the exams that we ask about the readings will focus on each item's main ideas and arguments, not on small details. If the annotations below point out some particular aspect of an article, be sure to pay attention to that aspect.

Introduction: Baase chapter 1.

Electronic voting (Read these by the start of the second week, to prepare for the first writing assignment) (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #1, April 20)

  1. National Commission on Federal Election Reform, "Summary of Principal Recommendations,"

  2. David L. Dill, Bruce Schneier, and Barbara Simons, "Voting and Technology: Who Gets to Count Your Vote?", Communications of the ACM, August 2003,

  3. Kevin Shelley, "Secretary of State's Ad Hoc Touch Screen Task Force Report,"

  4. Lance J. Hoffman and Lorrie Cranor, "Internet Voting for Public Officials," Communications of the ACM, January 2001,

  5. Joe Mohen and Julia Glidden, "The Case for Internet Voting," Communications of the ACM, January 2001. Note that this article and the next one run in parallel through the pages of the magazine.

  6. Deborah M. Phillips and Hans A. von Spakovsky, "Gauging the Risks of Internet Elections," Communications of the ACM, January 2001. Pay close attention to the affiliations of the authors of these two articles.

  7. Dana Canedy, "Vote System Chaos Triumphs Again in Florida Election," New York Times, 11 September 2002. What does this article tell us about how easy it is to implement new technologies?

  8. Rebecca Mercuri, "Florida 2002: Sluggish Systems, Vanishing Votes," Communications of the ACM, November 2002,

  9. Aviel D. Rubin, "Security Considerations for Remote Electronic Voting," Communications of the ACM, December 2002,

  10. Farhad Manjoo, "Bad grades for a voting-machine exam,", 15 October 2003,

  11. Jeremiah Akin, "Preliminary Report to the Central Committee on the Riverside County Logic and Accuracy Testing Board,"

  12. Election Center, "DREs and the Election Process,"

  13. John Schwartz, "Report Finds Security Risks in Allowing Americans Overseas to Cast Votes on the Internet," (Link) New York Times, 21 January 2004, A23,

  14. David Jefferson, Aviel D. Rubin, Barbara Simons, David Wagner, "A Security Analysis of the Secure Electronic Registration and Voting Experiment (SERVE),"

  15. Paul Krugman, "Democracy at Risk," New York Times, 23 January 2004, A23,

  16. John Schwartz, "Online Ballots Canceled for Americans Overseas," New York Times, 6 February 2004, A18,

  17. Ray F. Herndon and Stuart Pfeifer, "7000 Orange County Voters Were Given Bad Ballots," Los Angeles Times, 9 March 2004, A1,

  18. Stuart Pfeifer, "O.C .Supervisor Wants Audit of Flawed Electronic Voting," Los Angeles Times, 10 March 2004, B5,

  19. Stuart Pfeifer, "New Voting Hitch Had Old Cause," Los Angeles Times, 6 March 2004, B8,

  20. Stuart Pfeifer and Ray F. Herndon, "A New Voting Hang-Up for O.C.," Los Angeles Times, 12 March 2004, B5,

  21. Eric Bailey and Stuart Pfeifer, "Delay in State E-Voting is Suggested," Los Angeles Times, 12 March 2004, B5,

Privacy: Baase chapter 2. (Read these by the start of the second week) (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #1, April 20)

  1. Kim Zetter, "Mining the Vein of Voter Rolls," Wired News, 11 December 2003,,1367,61507,00.html

  2. Tony Perry, "Capturing Red-Light Runners Creates Red-Faced Officials," Los Angeles Times, 3 June 2001, B8, [Alternate link]

  3. Eugene Volokh, "The Cameras Are Watching--And It's a Good Thing" (alternate title: "Big Brother is Watching--Be Grateful!"), Wall Street Journal., 26 March 2002, p. A22, or

  4. Jane Engle, "When you rent a car, does the company secretly track you?," Los Angeles Times, 4 April 2004, L3, [Alternate link]

  5. Chris Hibbert, "History and Significance of the Social Security Number," Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, 9 January 2004,

  6. Dave Wilson, "Marketers Want to Keep Your Secrets," Los Angeles Times, 4 January 2001, T1, [Alternate link]

  7. Jamie Court, "Everything Has a Price, Including Your Private Information," Los Angeles Times, 2 June 2003, B11,

  8. Bettijane Levine, "FYI: yr e-mail can haunt u 4ever," Los Angeles Times, 6 June 2003, E1, [Alternate link]

  9. Barbara Simons and Eugene M. Spafford, "Risks of Total Surveillance," Communications of the ACM, March 2003,

  10. Jeffrey Zaslow, "If TiVo Thinks You Are Gay, Here's How to Set It Straight," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 2002,

  11. Patt Morrison, "The Big Squeeze on Americans' Privacy," Los Angeles Times, 15 July 2003, B3, [Alternate link]

  12. Carl Ingram, "Senate OKs Privacy Bill," Los Angeles Times, 20 August 2003, B1, [Alternate link]

  13. Meg McGinity, "RFID: Is This Game of Tag Fair Play?," Communications of the ACM, January 2004,

  14. Gregory J. Pottie, "Privacy in the Global E-Village," Communications of the ACM, February 2004,

  15. Katie Hafner, "In Google We Trust? When the Subject Is E-Mail, Maybe Not," New York Times, 8 April 2004,

  16. Electronic Frontier Foundation, "Gmail: What's the Deal?," 5 April 2004,

Safety and reliability: Baase chapter 4. (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #2, May 4)

  1. Sharon Bernstein, "At Times, Automated System May Ticket the Wrong Driver," Los Angeles Times, 2 September 2003, B2,

  2. Michael Specter, "The Doomsday Click," The New Yorker, May 28, 2001,

  3. David Lorge Parnas, "Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems," Communications of the ACM, December 1985,

  4. Peter G. Neumann, "Missile Defense," Communications of the ACM, September 2000. This question--whether to undertake a large project to develop a missile defense system and whether such a system would or could ever work--has recently come up again for consideration. The issues are about the same as those raised in the previous article by Parnas, from 1985.

  5. Nancy Leveson, "Medical Devices: The Therac-25," Appendix A of Safeware: System Safety and Computers, Addison-Wesley, 1995. The Therac-25 is a classic example of a computer-based system whose poor design killed people. You do not have to read this entire, long report, but you should read sections 1 and 4 and skim the others. We won't ask you details about the Therac's operation, but you should know the basic causes of the problems and what Leveson concludes about them. Nancy Leveson is now at MIT, but she did the original investigation of the Therac accidents when she was a professor here in ICS. She was also David Kay's teaching assistant when he took the equivalent of ICS 22.

  6.  Lauren Weinstein and Peter G. Neumann, "Risks of Panic," Communications of the ACM, November 2001,

  7. Peter G. Neumann and Lauren Weinstein, "Risks of National Identity Cards," Communications of the ACM, December 2001,

  8. Andrew Wright, "On Sapphire and Type-Safe Languages," Communications of the ACM, April 2003. This article provides another perspective on the choice of programming languages.

Intellectual property: Baase chapter 6. (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #2, May 4)

  1. League for Programming Freedom, "Against Software Patents", Communications of the ACM, January 1992,

  2. Paul Heckel, "Debunking the software patent myths," Communications of the ACM, June 1992,

  3. Tim O'Reilly, "The Internet Patent Land Grab," Communications of the ACM, June 2000,

  4. Michael S. Guntersdorfer and David G. Kay, "How Software Patents Can Support COTS Component Business," IEEE Software, May/June 2002,

  5. Electronic Frontier Foundation, "Unintended Consequences: Five Years under the DMCA,"

  6. David Streitfeld, "The Cultural Anarchist vs. the Hollywood Police State," Los Angeles Times Magazine, 22 September 2002, pg. 10,

  7. Robert S. Boynton, "The Tyranny of Copyright?", New York Times Magazine, 25 January 2004, pg. 40,

  8. Amy Harmon, "Recording Industry Goes After Students Over Music," New York Times, 23 April 2003, A1,

  9. Associated Press, "Mistaken ID? Music Firms Drop Suit Against Grandmother," Los Angeles Times, 25 September 2003, C3,

  10. Amy Harmon, "Penn State Will Pay To Allow Students To Download Music," New York Times, 7 November 2003, A1,

  11. John Schwartz, "More Lawsuits Filed in Effort to Thwart File Sharing," New York Times, 24 March 2004, C4,

  12. Pamela Samuelson, "DRM {and, or, vs.} the Law," Communications of the ACM, April 2003,

  13. Edward W. Felten, "A Skeptical View of DRM and Fair Use," Communications of the ACM, April 2003,

  14. Pamela Samuelson, "Trade Secrets vs. Free Speech," Communications of the ACM, June 2003,

  15. John Schwartz, "File Sharing Pits Copyright Against Free Speech," New York Times, 3 November 2003, C1,

Constitutional issues: Baase chapter 5. (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #3, May 25)

  1. Joseph Menn, "U.S. Admits Convicted Man Is No Hacker," Los Angeles Times, 16 October 2003, C1,

  2. Mark Magnier, "China Authorities Battle Hard to Tighten the Web," Los Angeles Times, 13 January 2004, A1,

  3. David S. Touretzky, "Free Speech Rights for Programmers," Communications of the ACM, August 2001,

  4. Eric M. Freedman, "Pondering Pixelized Pixies," Communications of the ACM, August 2001,

  5. Peter K. Yu, "New Technology and the Supreme Court,", May 23, 2002,

  6. Daniel Yi, "At Cyber Cafes, Playing Games Can Turn Serious," Los Angeles Times, 16 June 2002, B1,

  7. Richard Fausset and Karima Haynes, "Melee Prompts Call for Restrictions on Cyber Cafes," Los Angeles Times, 1 January 2003, B3,

Computers, organizations, the workplace and productivity: Baase chapter 8. (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #3, May 25)

  1. Greg Miller, "Fired by Big Brother," Los Angeles Times Magazine, January 28, 2001,

  2. Malcolm Gladwell, "Designs for Working," The New Yorker, December 11, 2000,

  3. Christine L. Borgman, "Where is the Librarian in the Digital Library," Communications of the ACM, May 2001,

  4. Janice C. Sipior and Burke T. Ward, "The Dark Side of Employee Email," Communications of the ACM, July 1999,

  5. Tony Horowitz, "Mr. Edens Profits from Watching His Workers' Every Move," Wall Street Journal, 1 December 1994, A9,

  6. Ian Parker, "Absolute PowerPoint," The New Yorker, May 28, 2001, [Alternate link]

  7. Jason Dedrick, Vijay Gurbaxani, Kenneth L. Kramer, "Information technology and economic performance: A critical review of the empirical evidence," ACM Computing Surveys, March 2003. Computers are supposed to increase productivity; do they really? The authors (who are all from UCI) address this issue, called the "productivity paradox." You don't have to read the whole long article; just focus on sections 1 and 8.

  8. Lauren Weinstein, "Outsourced and Out of Control," Communications of the ACM, February 2004,

  9. S. Krishna, Sundeepp Sahay, and Geoff Walsham, "Managing Cross-Cultural Issues in Global Software Outsourcing," Communications of the ACM, April 2004,

  10. Eduardo Porter, "Companies Finding Some Computer Jobs Best Done in U.S.," New York Times, 28 April 2004

  11. Adam Engst, Tonya Engst, and Jon Hersh, "Caring for Your Wrists," [Non-PDF link]

Computers and social change: Baase chapter 9 (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #3, May 25)

  1. Malcolm Gladwell, "The Social Life of Paper," The New Yorker, March 25, 2002,

  2. Mark LeVine, "The Danger of Google History in a Time of War," OC Weekly, 14-20 March 2003. LeVine is a history professor at UCI.

  3. Leah Graham and Panagiotis Takis Metaxas, " 'Of Course it's True; I Saw It on the Internet!,' Critical Thinking in the Internet Era," Communications of the ACM, May 2003,

  4. News Track, "Awkshun Serchs," Communications of the ACM, April 2004. The download contains half a dozen short articles; just read this one. Since the article is very short, of course your notebook entry will be correspondingly brief.

  5. Peter G. Neumann, "E-Epistemology and Misinformation," Communications of the ACM, May 2003,

  6. Jube Shiver, Jr., "Tired of Slow Speeds, Some Cities Build Their Own Net, Cable Firms," Los Angeles Times, 11 January 2004, C1,

  7. Steve Hymon, "Cyberspace: Last Frontier for Settling Scores?," Los Angeles Times, 15 June 2003, B1,

  8. Jenny Preece, "Etiquette Online: From Nice to Necessary," Communications of the ACM, April 2004,

  9. Elizabeth Kolbert, "Pimps and Dragons," The New Yorker, May 28, 2001. Even if you're not into gaming, this article's point is that the Web enables entirely new kinds of communities to form. [Alternate link]

  10. News Track, "Women Got Game," Communications of the ACM, April 2004. This short article is included in the same News Track column listed above.

  11. John G. Messerly, "How Computer Games Affect CS (and Other) Students' School Performance," Communications of the ACM, March 2004,

  12. Elizabeth Mehren, "Derided Computer Plan Clicks With Maine Students," Los Angeles Times, 17 November 2002, A17,

  13. Elliot Soloway, Cathleen Norris, Phyllis Blumenfeld, Barry Fishman, Joseph Krajcik, and Ron Marx, "Handheld Devices are Ready-at-Hand," Communications of the ACM, June 2001,

  14. Keith Devlin, "The Real Reason Why Software Engineers Need Math," Communications of the ACM, October 2001. This article relates to our discussion in class of how mathematics education might change with the ubiquity of computers.

Ethics and professional responsibility: Baase chapter 10 (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #4, June 8)

  1. Association for Computing Machinery, "ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct." You do not have to memorize all the provisions of this code (or the software engineering code below), but you should know that the main organizations of your profession have policies on what conduct is and isn't acceptable.

  2. IEEE-CS and ACM, "Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice."

  3. Jennifer Kreie and Timothy Paul Cronan, "Making Ethical Decisions," Communications of the ACM, December 2000,

  4. Charles C. Mann, "Why Software is so Bad," Technology Review, July/August 2002,

  5. John C. Knight and Nancy G. Leveson, "Should Software Engineers be Licensed?," Communications of the ACM, November 2002. Leveson, now at MIT, was once on the ICS faculty at UCI, where she founded the field of software safety and did most of the background research on the THERAC accidents.

  6. Donald J. Bagert, "Texas Licensing of Software Engineers: All's Quiet, For Now," Communications of the ACM, November 2002,

  7. Ken Kennedy and Moshe Y. Vardi, "A Rice University Perspective on Software Engineering Licensing," Communications of the ACM, November 2002,

  8. David Lorge Parnas, "Licensing Software Engineers in Canada," Communications of the ACM, November 2002. Recall that Parnas is the author of the 1985 article on "Star Wars" missile defense.

  9. Gord McCalla, "Software Engineering Requires Individual Professionalism," Communications of the ACM, November 2002,

  10. Mark Keil and Daniel Robey, "Blowing the Whistle on Troubled Software Projects," Communications of the ACM, April 2001. After Enron, are professionals more sensitive to their duty to give their client bad news?

Human-computer interaction and information architecture (Include all of the following readings in Notebook Installment #4, June 8)

  1. David G. Kay, "Typographic Design For Computerized Text." You don't have to write a notebook entry for this, but you do have to know what it says.

  2. Bruce Tognazzini, "The Butterfly Ballot: Anatomy of a Disaster,"

  3. Anick Jesdanun, "Father of World Wide Web Moves on to Next Step: Keeping it Simple," Los Angeles Times, 25 December 2000, C6,

  4. Clifford Nass, "Etiquette Equality: Exhibitions and Expectations of Computer Politeness," Communications of the ACM, April 2004,

  5. Dave Wilson, "User-Unfriendly," Los Angeles Times, 28 December 2000, T1,

  6. JoAnn Hackos and Janice Redish, "Introducing ...," chapter 1 of User and Task Analysis for Interface Design (1998). This is the one article that is available only on paper, at the Engineering Copy Center. Feel free to buy a copy and share it around. I will ask at least one question about this on the final.

  7. Edward Tufte, "Visual and Statistical Thinking: Displays of Evidence for Decision Making." This is available in the bookstore, not in the packet. If you enjoyed this excerpt, you should consider reading the whole book it came from, Tufte's Visual Explanations, and its two companion volumes, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information and Envisioning Information. You can find them in the library or at bookstores (especially on the Web).

David G. Kay, 406B Computer Science
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697-3425 -- (949) 824-5072 -- Fax (949) 824-4056 -- Email

Friday, June 4, 2004 -- 5:01 PM