CHI 2004












Workshop on Designing for Reflective Practitioners


Workshop 5 at ACM CHI 2004

Sunday, April 25, 2004


Theme and Call



CHI 2004 Home Page


Workshop Home Page and Schedule


Participant Instructions


Theme and Call



This workshop is an opportunity for diverse researchers to come together to identify and trace common ideas evolving from the work of Donald Schön about the reflective practitioner. It is an opportunity to assess solutions, and to open channels of communication.


Donald Schön wrote about the reflective practitioner, describing professional practice as transcending technical rationality, requiring reflection-in-action. Researchers in diverse communities have articulated related concepts. Fred Brooks distinguished between accidental and essential activities for software designers. Herbert Simon referred to the bounds of rationality in solving ill-formed problems. Lucy Suchman demonstrated the limits of rationalized designs in her characterization of situated action.


In response to these observations, and sometimes in parallel, researchers and practitioners in many communities developed techniques, methods, and theories to support reflection on the part of end users. Software critics, agents, and wizards are example techniques developed by the intelligent user interface community to prompt end users to reflect on their work. The computer-supported collaborative learning community has worked to integrate working and learning. Methodologies such as participatory design and open source development support reflection and greater realism in software systems in the ways they involve end users.


Participants will be selected on the basis of a 2-4 page position paper discussing their experiences developing and using techniques, methods, and theories that support reflective practitioners. Authors should address how the concepts they have used have evolved over time. Papers in MS Word or Adobe PDF formats should be submitted to with the subject line “CHI Workshop Submission” no later than January 12, 2004. Notice of participant acceptance will be given by February 23, 2004. Additional information will be updated at





Schön, D. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action, Basic Books, New York, 1983.


Brooks, F. No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accident in Software Engineering. IEEE Computer, 20(4), 10-19, 1987.


Fischer, G. Domain-Oriented Design Environments, Automated Software Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 177-203, 1994.


Fischer, G., Nakakoji, K. Beyond the Macho Approach of AI: Empower Human Designers - Do Not Replace Them, Knowledge-Based Systems Journal, Special Issue of AI in Design, 5(1), 15-30, 1992.


Mørch, A.I. Evolutionary Growth and Control in User Tailorable Systems, in Adaptive Evolutionary Information Systems, N. Patel (ed.). Idea Group Publishing, 2003, pp. 30-58.


Mørch, A., Jondahl, S., Dolonen, J. Supporting Conceptual Awareness with Pedagogical Agents, Information Systems Frontiers, special issue on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Requiring Immersive Presence, R. Sharda, N.C. Romano, J. Lucca, and L. Neal (eds.). Forthcoming 2004.


K. Nakakoji, Y. Yamamoto, B.N. Reeves, S. Takada, Two-Dimensional Positioning as a Means for Reflection in Design, Design of Interactive Systems (DIS'2000), ACM, New York, NY, pp. 145-154, August, 2000.


Redmiles, D. Supporting the End Users’ Views, Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2002, Trento, Italy), May 2002, pp. 34-42.


Robbins, J., Redmiles, D. Cognitive Support, UML Adherence, and XMI Interchange in Argo/UML, Information and Software Technology, Vol. 42, No.2, January 2000, pp.79-89.


Simon, H. The Sciences of the Artificial, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996.


Suchman, L. Plans and Situated Actions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1987.