ICS 180, Spring'04
Textbooks and Background Readings
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There is no required textbook for this class. However, we'll be
distributing handouts with lecture notes or outlines, and some material is
available online. Here are the pointers to both online and offline
background material for our class. You will not need to look at these
notes, but if you run into problems, or would like to see an alternative
treatment of some subject, etc, you will find this list useful.
(The list I'm giving here started by editing a list compiled by
Tal Malkin for the "intro to crypto" class she teaches at Columbia.)
Main reference, available online:
S. Goldwasser and M. Bellare:
Lecture Notes on Cryptography. This is the closest thing
to a "text book" for this class. These are notes from a summer
cryptography class given by profs. Shafi Goldwasser and Mihir Bellare at MIT.
The treatment here is focused on the theoretical foundations of
cryptography. This is similar to our approach in this class, although on
a more advanced level and sometimes in a different order. I very much
encourage you to look into this text for reference.
Other cryptography lecture notes available online:
The following collections of lecture notes take a (more or less) similar
approach to the one we take in this class (except of Bellare/Rogaway notes
which emphasize symmetric setting more than we will).

M. Bellare and P. Rogaway:
Lecture Notes
for a graduate cryptography course at UCSD. The approach here is still
aimed towards precise definitions and provable security, although more emphasis
is given to practical considerations.

T. Malkin: Lecture
Notes. These are lecture notes from Tal Malkin's
Intro to Crypto
class she taught at Columbia this fall. They are less polished then the first
two above, but the arrangement of the material is closer to our class.

J. Katz: Lecture Notes.
These are lecture notes from the Intro
to Crypto
class Jonathan Katz thought last year at University of Maryland.

The link to a graduate
Intro to Crypto class of Yevgeni Dodis at NYU contains a very good
writeup of Yevgeni's lectures on this topic (click "Lecture Summaries")
Cryptography Texts available online and as books:
Oded Goldreich's notes for his
Foundation of Cryptography book are available online. Oded's
work is a comprehensive treatment of the theoretical foundations of
cryptography and it covers the material in far greater depth that our
class. It is recommended as a background reading, especially
for students who are interested in conducting research in cryptography.

Foundations of
Cryptography (Fragments of a Book).
This the the online material which is superseded by Volume I of Oded's
Foundation of Cryptography which appeared in print and is available in the UCI
science library.

Foundations,
volume II. The material of the second part of the book, which will
appear in print this coming spring, is available online at the bottom of this
page.
The following is a comprehensive reference book for all areas in
cryptography. It has a less careful approach to definitions and proofs of
security than we do, but it is a very good reference text. It is
available chapter by chapter from the book website:
Other Cryptography Texts available in print:

W. Mao: Modern Cryptography: Theory
and Practice. This is a very recent book which is
oriented towards a theoretical treatment of cryptography. Its theoretical
treatment is much less detailed than Oded's Foundations, but it is a good
introduction to the subject, and it balances the theory with more
practice. Unfortunately, the book is not very clear so I cannot
recommend it as a primary text.

D. R. Stinson: Cryptography: Theory and Practice (2nd edition).
This is a good reference book, but it does not cover the cryptographic theory
in a systematic way which is the focus of our class.
On the opposite end of the theoryvspractice spectrum, the following book
presents only a very intuitive treatment of cryptography, and is a useful
reference for software implementation (which we do not address in the class).

B. Schneier: Applied Cryptography.
Material available online on (computational) number theory and its
cryptographic applications:
Some excellent references for computational number theory and applied algebra
include:

D. Angluin: Lecture Notes on the Complexity of Some Problems in Number Theory.
Available for download from Tal Malkin's website at Columbia: (ps
 pdf).
This is a short review of number theory and its computational
aspects. It is sufficient for the needs of our class.

V. Shoup: A
Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra. This is a very
comprehensive introduction to algorithmic number theory, with all the necessary
mathematical background selfcontained. This is a BETA version, but
in good shape.
Background Readings on Computability/Complexity
Background reading on discrete math, probability, algorithms and complexity
theory can be found in several of the above references (in particular the one
by Shoup, by Menezes, van Oorschot, and Vanstone, and by Wenbo Mao.
The following two books are excellent standalone textbooks for,
respectively, complexity and algorithms:

M. Sipser:
Introduction to the Theory of Computation. See chapter 0 for basic
discrete math, and chapter 7 for basic complexity notions.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L, Rivest, C. Stein: Introduction
to Algorithms. See first part for introduction to algorithms and
randomized algorithms, and appendix for discrete math and probability overview.
NonTechnical Reading on Cryptography
Some interesting nontechnical books about the history of cryptology (which will
not be addressed in this class), include the following two, originally written
in 1967 and 1999, respectively.

D. Kahn: The Codebreakers  The Comprehensive History of Secret
Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet.

S. Singh:
The Code Book
 The Secret History of Codes and Code Breaking.