## 28 October 2022

# Analyzing Kleinberg’s (and other) Small-world Models

## Ofek Gila

Abstract: We analyze the properties of Small-World networks, where links are much more likely to connect "neighbor nodes" than distant nodes. In particular, our analysis provides new results for Kleinberg's Small-World model and its extensions. Kleinberg adds a number of directed long-range random links to an nxn lattice network (vertices as nodes of a grid, undirected edges between any two adjacent nodes). Links have a non-uniform distribution that favors arcs to close nodes over more distant ones. He shows that the following phenomenon occurs: between any two nodes a path with expected length O(log2n) can be found using a simple greedy algorithm which has no global knowledge of long-range links.We show that Kleinberg's analysis is tight: his algorithm achieves θ(log2n) delivery time. Moreover, we show that the expected diameter of the graph is θlog n), a log n factor smaller. We also extend our results to the general k-dimensional model. Our diameter results extend traditional work on the diameter of random graphs which largely focuses on uniformly distributed arcs. Using a little additional knowledge of the graph, we show that we can find shorter paths: with expected length O(log3/2n) in the basic 2-dimensional model and O(log1+1/k) in the general k-dimensional model (fork≥1).Finally, we suggest a general approach to analyzing a broader class of random graphs with non-uniform edge probabilities. Thus we show expected θ(log n) diameter results for higher dimensional grids, as well as settings with less uniform base structures: where links can be missing, where the probability can vary at different nodes, or where grid-related factors (e.g. the use of lattice distance) has a weaker role or is dismissed, and constraints (such as the uniformness of degree distribution) are relaxed.