Computing is being transformed to a model consisting of services that are commoditised and delivered in a manner similar to utilities such as water, electricity, gas, and telephony. In such a model, users access services based on their requirements without regard to where the services are hosted. Several computing paradigms have promised to deliver this utility computing vision and they include Grid computing, P2P computing, and more recently Cloud computing. The latter term denotes the infrastructure as a Cloud in which businesses and users are able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand. Cloud computing delivers infrastructure, platform, and software (application) as services, which are made available as subscription-based services in a pay-as-you-go model to consumers.
These services in industry are respectively referred to as Infrastructure as a Service (Iaas), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). To realize Cloud computing, vendors such as Amazon, HP, IBM, and Sun are starting to create and deploy Clouds in various locations around the world. In addition, companies with global operations require faster response time, and thus save time by distributing workload requests to multiple Clouds in various locations at the same time. This creates the need for establishing a computing atmosphere for dynamically interconnecting and provisioning Clouds from multiple domains within and across enterprises. There are many challenges involved in creating such Clouds and Cloud interconnections.
This tutorial (1) presents the 21st century vision of computing and identifies various IT paradigms promising to deliver the vision of computing utilities; (2) defines the architecture for creating market-oriented Clouds and computing atmosphere by leveraging technologies such as VMs; (3) provides thoughts on market-based resource management strategies that encompass both customer-driven service management and computational risk management to sustain SLA-oriented resource allocation; (4) presents the work carried out as part of our new Cloud Computing initiative, called Cloudbus: (i) Aneka, a software system for providing PaaS within private or public Clouds and supporting market-oriented resource management, (ii) internetworking of Clouds for dynamic creation of federated computing environments for scaling of elastic applications, (iii) creation of 3rd party Cloud brokering services for content delivery network and e-Science applications and their deployment on capabilities of IaaS providers such as Amazon and Nirvanix along with Grid mashups, and (iv) CloudSim supporting modelling and simulation of Clouds for performance studies; and (5) concludes with the need for convergence of competing IT paradigms for delivering our 21st century vision along with pathways for future research.
The FutureGrid (FG) testbed provides computing capabilities that will enable researchers to tackle complex research challenges related to the use of Grids and Clouds. The FG testbed includes a geographically distributed set of heterogeneous computing systems, of about 5000 cores, a data management system that will hold both metadata and a growing library of software images necessary for Cloud computing, and a dedicated network allowing isolated, secure experiments. The testbed supports virtual machine-based environments, as well as operating systems on native hardware for experiments aimed at minimizing overhead and maximizing performance.
The tutorial starts with an introduction and overview of the services offered by FutureGrid to the community. We will highlight a number of success stories to demonstrate how these services have been beneficial for research activities. FG Provides currently a number of services including Nimbus, Eucalyptus, Unicore, and Genesis II that we will introduce to the participants with plans to provide additional services such as OpenNebula, and OpenStack. Furthermore, we will present the participant with information about how users can utilize dynamic provisioning of system software, Next, we will provide a hands-on session that will allow users to gain access to FG and to try some of its services.
Scientific Workflows: The Pegasus Workflow Management System Example
Workflows are a key technology for enabling complex scientific applications. They capture the interdependencies between data transformations and analysis steps as well as the mechanisms to execute them in a distributed environment in a reliable and efficient fashion. Workflows can capture processes at different levels of abstraction, and also provide the provenance infrastructure necessary for scientific reproducibility and sharing. In this tutorial we examine the opportunities and challenges of designing and running scientific workflows in distributed environments.
We will also explore the design and functionality of Pegasus-Workflow Management System, which is composed of Pegasus Workflow Mapper and Condor DAGMan workflow execution engine. Pegasus allows users to design workflows at a high-level of abstraction and then automatically maps them to distributed resources. Through hands-on exercises using a Virtual Machine Image, we will cover issues ranging from workflow composition how to design a workflow in a portable way, to workflow execution how to run the workflow efficiently and reliably.
Users now routinely run workflows with thousands of tasks on the large computational clusters like TeraGrid. An important component of the tutorial will be how to monitor, debug and analyze such workflows. We will introduce the Corral WMS that allows users to provision on community grids.
Designing Cloud and Grid Computing Systems with InfiniBand and High-speed Ethernet
InfiniBand (IB) and High-Speed Ethernet (HSE) technologies are generating a lot of excitement towards building next generation high-end computing (HEC) systems including Cloud computing systems and distributed Grids. This tutorial will provide an overview of these emerging interconnect architectures, their offered features, their current market standing, and their suitability for Cloud and Grid computing environments. It will start with a brief overview of IB, HSE, and their architectural features. An overview of the emerging OpenFabrics stack which encapsulates both IB and HSE in a unified manner will be presented. IB and HSE hardware/software solutions and the market trends will be highlighted. Finally, sample performance numbers highlighting the performance these technologies can achieve in different environments such as virtualized cloud computing environments, hadoop environments, and wide-area networking systems will be shown.