We consider problems of partitioning sets of geometric objects into two subsets, such that no two objects within the same subset intersect each other. Typically, such problems can be solved in quadratic time by constructing the intersection graph and then applying a graph bipartiteness testing algorithm; we achieve subquadratic times for general objects, and O(n log n) times for balls in R^d or simple polygons in the plane, by using geometric data structures, separator based divide and conquer, and plane sweep techniques, respectively. We also contrast the complexity of bipartiteness testing with that of connectivity testing, and provide evidence that for some classes of object, connectivity is strictly harder due to a computational equivalence with Euclidean minimum spanning trees.
We show how to apply reverse search to list all maximal independent sets in bounded-degree graphs in constant time per set, in graphs from minor closed families in linear time per set, and in sparse graphs in subquadratic time per set. The latter two results rely on new data structures for maintaining a dynamic vertex set in a graph and quickly testing whether the set dominates all other vertices.
We find efficient constant factor approximation algorithms for hierarchically clustering of a point set in any metric space, minimizing the sum of minimimum spanning tree lengths within each cluster, and in the hyperbolic or Euclidean planes, minimizing the sum of cluster perimeters. Our algorithms for the hyperbolic and Euclidean planes can also be used to provide a pants decomposition with approximately minimum total length.
We investigate a class of metrics for 2-manifolds in which, except for a discrete set of singular points, the metric is locally isometric to an L1 metric, and show that with certain additional conditions such metrics are injective. We use this construction to find the tight span of squaregraphs and related graphs, and we find an injective metric that approximates the distances in the hyperbolic plane analogously to the way the rectilinear metrics approximate the Euclidean distance.
We show how to solve several versions of the problem of casing graph drawings: that is, given a drawing, choosing to draw one edge as upper and one lower at each crossing in order to improve the drawing's readability.
We describe tests for whether the union-closure of a set family is well-graded, and algorithms for finding a minimal well-graded union-closed superfamily of a given set family.
Defines a class of orthogonal graph drawings formed by a point set in three dimensions for which axis-parallel line contains zero or two vertices, with edges connecting pairs of points on each nonempty axis-parallel line. Shows that the existence of such a drawing can be defined topologically, in terms of certain two-dimensional surface embeddings of the same graph. Based on this equivalence, describes algorithms, graph-theoretic properties, and hardness results for graphs of this type.
We formalize problems of finding large approximately-matching regions of two related but not completely isomorphic quadrilateral meshes, show that these problems are NP-complete, and describe a natural greedy heuristic that is guaranteed to find good matches when the mismatching parts of the meshes are small.
Greedy drawing is an idea for encoding network routing tables into the geometric coordinates of an embedding of the network, but most previous work in this area has ignored the space complexity of these encoded tables. We refine a method of R. Kleinberg for embedding arbitrary graphs into the hyperbolic plane, which uses linearly many bits to represent each vertex, and show that only logarithmic bits per point are needed.
We describe polynomial time algorithms for determining whether an undirected graph may be embedded in a distance-preserving way into the hexagonal tiling of the plane, the diamond structure in three dimensions, or analogous structures in higher dimensions. The graphs that may be embedded in this way form an interesting subclass of the partial cubes.
We consider problems of determining when a curve in the plane is the projection of a 3d surface with no vertical tangents. Several problems of this type are NP-complete, but can be solved in polynomial time if a casing of the curve is also given.
If a connected graph corresponds to a set of points and line segments in the plane, in such a way that the number of crossing pairs of line segments is sublinear in the size of the graph by an iterated-log factor, then we can find the arrangement of the segments in linear time. It was previously known how to find the arrangement in linear time when the number of crossings is superlinear by an iterated-log factor, so the only remaining open case is when the number of crossings is close to the size of the graph.
Proves that it's NP-complete to compute the Hadwiger number of a graph.
A partition of a rectangle into smaller rectangles is "area-universal" if any vector of areas for the smaller rectangles can be realized by a combinatorially equivalent partition. These partitions may be applied, for instance, to cartograms, stylized maps in which the shapes of countries have been distorted so that their areas represent numeric data about the countries. We characterize area-universal layouts, describe algorithms for finding them, and discuss related problems. The algorithms for constructing area-universal layouts are based on the distributive lattice structure of the set of all layouts of a given dual graph.
Merged with "Orientation-constrained rectangular layouts" to form the journal version, "Area-universal and constrained rectangular layouts".
We investigate distance from a pair of sites defined as the sum of the distances to each site minus a parameter times the distance between the two sites. A given set of n sites defines n(n-1)/2 pairs and n(n-1)/2 distances in this way, from which we can determine a Voronoi diagram. As we show, for a wide range of parameters, the diagram has relatively few regions because the pairs that have nonempty Voronoi regions must be Delaunay edges.
We investigate isometric embeddings of other graphs into Fibonacci cubes, graphs formed from the families of fixed-length bitstrings with no two consecutive ones.
We define the h-index of a graph to be the maximum h such that the graph has h vertices each of which has degree at least h. We show that the h-index, and a partition of the graph into high and low degree vertices, may be maintained in constant time per update. Based on this technique, we show how to maintain the number of triangles in a dynamic graph in time O(h) per update; this problem is motivated by Markov Chain Monte Caro simulation of the Exponential Random Graph Model used for simulation of social networks. We also prove bounds on the h-index for scale-free graphs and investigate the behavior of the h-index on a corpus of real social networks.
We investigate several simplified models for k-anonymization in databases, show them to be hard to solve exactly, and provide approximation algorithms for them.
The min-max bin covering problem is closely related to one of our models. An input to this problem consists of a collection of items with sizes and a threshold size. The items must be grouped into bins such that the total size within each bin is at least the threshold, while keeping the maximum bin size as small as possible.
We show how to find a stylized map in which regions have been replaced by rectangles, preserving adjacencies between regions, with constraints on the orientations of adjacencies between regions. For an arbitrary dual graph representing a set of adjacencies, and an arbitrary set of orientation constraints, we can determine whether there exists a rectangular map satisfying those constraints in polynomial time. The algorithm is based on a representation of the set of all layouts for a given dual graph as a distributive lattice, and on Birkhoff's representation theorem for distributive lattices.
Merged with "Area-universal rectangular layouts" to form the journal version, "Area-universal and constrained rectangular layouts".
We provide an O(n3 log2n) algorithm for finding a non-distance-decreasing mapping from a given metric into a star metric with as small a dilation as possible. The main idea is to reduce the problem to one of parametric shortest paths in an auxiliary graph. Specifically, we transform the problem into the parametric negative cycle detection problem: given a graph in which the edge weights are linear functions of a parameter λ, find the minimum value of λ for which the graph contains no negative cycles. We find a new strongly polynomial time algorithm for this problem, and use it to solve the star metric embedding problem.
Characterizes squaregraphs as duals of triangle-free hyperbolic line arrangements, provides a forbidden subgraph characterization of them, describes an algorithm for finding minimum subsets of vertices that generate the whole graph by medians, and shows that they may be isometrically embedded into Cartesian products of five (but not, in general, fewer than five) trees.
We survey problems in computational geometry that may be solved by constructing an auxiliary graph from the problem and solving a graph-theoretic problem on the auxiliary graph. The problems considered include the art gallery problem, partitioning into rectangles, minimum diameter clustering, bend minimization in cartogram construction, mesh stripification, optimal angular resolution, and metric embedding.
We consider drawings of planar partial cubes in which all interior faces are centrally symmetric convex polygons, as in my previous paper Algorithms for Drawing Media. Among all drawings of this type, we show how to find the one with optimal angular resolution. The solution involves a transformation from the problem into the parametric negative cycle detection problem: given a graph in which the edge weights are linear functions of a parameter λ, find the minimum value of λ for which the graph contains no negative cycles.
Considers heuristic modifications to the tree-cotree decomposition of my earlier paper Dynamic generators of topologically embedded graphs, to make the set of fundamental cycles found as part of the decomposition follow the contours of a given geometric model.
Shows both theoretically and experimentally that the number of times a random line crosses a road network is asymptotically upper bounded by the square root of the number of road segments.
Considers situations in which two hard approximation problems are presented by means of a single input. In many cases it is possible to guarantee that one or the other problem can be approximated to within a better approximation ratio than is possible for approximating it as a single problem. For instance, it is possible to find either a (1+ε)-approximation to a 1-2 TSP defined from a graph or a nε-approximation to the maximum independent set of the same graph, despite lower bounds showing nonexistence of approximation schemes for 1-2 TSP and nonexistence of approximations better than n1 − ε for independent set. However, for some other pairs of problems, such as hitting set and set cover, we show that solving the paired problem approximately is no easier than solving either problem independently.
Shows that, when the tight span of a finite metric space is homeomorphic to a subset of the plane, it has the geometry of a Manhattan orbifold and can be constructed in time linear in the size of the input distance matrix. As a consequence, it can be tested in the same time whether a metric space is isometric to a subset of the L1 plane.
We classify semi-totalistic cellular automaton rules according to whether patterns can escape any finite bounding box and whether patterns can die out completely, with the aim of finding rules with interesting behavior similar to Conway's Game of Life. We survey a number of such rules.
We provide a graph-theoretic characterization of three classes of nonconvex polyhedra with axis-parallel sides, analogous to Steinitz's theorem characterizing the graphs of convex polyhedra.
The journal version has the slightly different title "Steinitz theorems for simple orthogonal polyhedra".
Years -- Publications -- David Eppstein -- Theory Group -- Inf. & Comp. Sci. -- UC Irvine
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